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 Post subject: Re: Transylvanian army in iconography and descriptions
PostPosted: Tue Sep 02, 2014 6:04 pm 
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Fältherren
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Well, I live in Scotland, so I will stick to Scottish meaning of the word :)

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 Post subject: Re: Transylvanian army in iconography and descriptions
PostPosted: Thu Sep 04, 2014 12:54 am 
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A short treatise about the Transylvanian army. Unfortunately (but not for me) it is in german. I will give a short summary of what is written there if i find the time :)
http://www.academia.edu/4141958/DAS_HEE ... NCIPALITY_

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 Post subject: Re: Transylvanian army in iconography and descriptions
PostPosted: Mon Sep 15, 2014 7:18 pm 
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Here is the first part of my translation. I skipped the introduction about the history and founding of Transylvania to start straight with the parts of the army. Statements in [brackets] are additions from me to explain certain terms. Next parts will follow if i have the time. For now enjoy :)

II. THE PARTS OF THE ARMY

The founding of the Principality of Transylvania took place during the same time as the change in European warfare. Middle- and Eastern Europe (so Hungary) weren't left untouched by this revolution in warfare. One year after the Battle of Pavia at the Battle of Mohács the heavy Hungarian cavalry was routed in front of the musket armed janissaries. Less than a year later, while troops of the German-Roman Emperor and King of Spain Karl V. sacked Rome in 1527, his soldier appeared in Hungary too and helped Archduke Ferdinand, his brother, to dispel King Johann out of the land. Starting in the middle of the 16th century in Hungary an untold number of castles where modernized with the help of italian engineers to halt the turkish advance.
About the turn of the century, during the Long War, Western Europe's best skilled soldiers fought in the army of Emperor Rudilf II., who used a greater number of firearms than on the battlefields of France or the Netherlands.
In economically more advanced western europe there was the possibility to hire professionals who where accustomed to the new methods of warfare. In Middle- and Eastern Europe it wasn't possible to hire expensive western mercenaries so the traditional medieval organization of the army held a great significance.

The renewing traditional organization of the army

THE MILITARY OF THE COUNTIES [german: Komitat, from the latin comitatus, hungarian: megye, plural: megyék]

Since the founding of the state the counties where the the main bodies of administration in Hungary. While they changed during the centuries from being centers of administration for the royal properties to institutions of self administration for the nobility who lived on these territories, they still kept their role even in the 16th and 17th century without interruption. In the 11th century in Transylvania there where founded seven counties – this is the root of the german name Siebenbürgen [literally Seven Castles]. At the founding of the Principality of Transylvania the counties of Belsoö-Szolnok, Doboka, Kolozs, Torda, Küküllö, Fehér and Hunyad where joined by the five counties of Hungary: Máramaros, Közép-Szolnok, Kraszna, Bihar and Zaránd. These five hungarian counties as parts of Hungary under the rule of the Prince of Transylvania where known under the latin name patium which means part.
The military of the counties consisted of three parts: the levy of the nobility, the levy of the portales and the general levy. Every noble was liable to military service and had to equip a number iof soldiers according to his wealth.
While there had be to equipped one cavalryman and one foot soldier per 16, later 20 fiefdoms – portales – the whole was named military of the portales or militia portalis. If the prince calls upon the general levy then there had to be, from every fiefdom, send to war an additional man of the thralls and peasants each. One tenth or one twentieth of the Jobbagiones [nobiles castri = poor nobles which the King once gave castles so that they should protect the surrounding lands] had to stand ready for war at all times. Even without the general levy the numerical size of the military was, if successful, quite impressive. Supposedly 4000 obligatory nobles lived in each county and nearly double the size was the strength of the armies of the portales, which where send to war from the fiefdoms. But the worth in battle of their untrained and poorly equipped soldiers was rather low and in the second half of the 17th century their numbers decreased drastically.

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 Post subject: Re: Transylvanian army in iconography and descriptions
PostPosted: Mon Sep 15, 2014 7:34 pm 
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Fältherren
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'The Deluge' will have that aspect described in great details, Marcin Sowa who wrote army lists dig deep into Hungarian primary and secondary sources.

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 Post subject: Re: Transylvanian army in iconography and descriptions
PostPosted: Mon Sep 15, 2014 7:52 pm 
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Yes i read about this in the polish part of the forum. Google Translator helped a bit ;) I would love to read the entire book of Marcin Sowa but for now i only have this few pages written by János B. Szabó. And as we wait impatiently for "The Deluge" i see no harm to exercise my translation skills and provide non german speakers with a little information of the Transylvanian military. ;)

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 Post subject: Re: Transylvanian army in iconography and descriptions
PostPosted: Mon Sep 15, 2014 10:42 pm 
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THE BANDERIES OF THE MAGNATES AND THE MILITARY OF THE CASTLE OWNERS

At the beginning of the 16th century the main body of the army of the Kingdom of Hungary consisted of the private armies of the country's barons which was fielded under the banners of each lord. (the troops where named banderia or banierum after the banners of the magnates, thus banderies). This form of organization remained after the Battle of Mohács in the Kingdom of Hungary as in Transylvania, too. But in Transylvania the number of great land owners which had to provide a banderium was very low. Because of this heir some hundred men fought attached to the county armies.
Die great land owners, foremost the prince himself, provided troops in the castles of their respective denizen, which in order to be free of fees had to provide military service. Until the end of the 17th century an independent estate arose out of those. This society of a few hundred people mainly took care of the defense of the castles and occasionally sent only small units to the army of the prince.

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 Post subject: Re: Transylvanian army in iconography and descriptions
PostPosted: Sun Sep 21, 2014 10:19 pm 
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THE SZÉKELY

Speaking hungarian and assigned with the defence of the borders, the Székely settled in their dwelling zone during the 13th century at the inner rim of the eastern carpathian mountains. Until the end of the 14th century they created a distinct body of administration, the so called seats (sedes). In the 16th century there already existed seven Székely seats: Udvarhely, Maros, Arnyos, Csik, Sepsi, Kézi and Orbai. The three last, smaller, seats united at the beginning of the 17thcentury under the name Háromszék (three seats).
As a matter of principle in exchange for his privileges every man of the Székely was fit for military service, so that in the mid 16th century the number of Shékely which where fit for war should have numbered between 20-30.000 men. The anachronistic organization of the Székely army which was based on the levy was reorganized after 1562. The wealthier persons, which could afford the cost much better, where distinguished from society, and similar to the nobility of the counties, the chiefs [primores] of the Székely had to provide soldiers in relation to the size of their holdings. The so called Primipili [löfös] of the nobility had to personally serve as cavalryman and their red uniformed Darabonts [pixidarii] went to war on foot. The number of men fit for military service rarely exceeded 6000. The remainder of the common people where degraded to peasant serfs which caused several uprisings. 1601 most of them had regained their freedom and where included in the estate of Darabonts, some kind of trabant. In the mid 17th century thanks to this reform the number of the Székely fit for war reached nearly 20.000. At this time the cheap and easily mobilized military of the Székely where left behind the needs of the period if it came to armament and training. But the weakened Principality couldn't dispense with the army of the Székely.
With the occupation of the Principality by the Habsburgians in the year 1687 the age of turkish dependency cam to an end. Because of this the old organization of the army of the Principality lost its importance and ceased to exist at the beginning of the 18th century. The Székely, as the wardens of the tarnsylvanian borders, remained soldiers in the Habsburgian Empire.

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 Post subject: Re: Transylvanian army in iconography and descriptions
PostPosted: Sun Sep 21, 2014 10:35 pm 
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Thanks for all the info! 8)


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 Post subject: Re: Transylvanian army in iconography and descriptions
PostPosted: Mon Sep 22, 2014 12:35 am 
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No problem :)

THE CITIES OF THE HAIDUKS

The cities of the haiduks, which gained privileges same as the Székely model, where the elements of the traditional organization of the transylvanian army where the last created and the first to be disbanded. At the beginning of the 16th century the name Haiduk denoted those cattle herders who lives with their livestock. Those herders, which also where familiar with the use of weapons, turned out to be ideal material for soldiers and in the middle of the century after they had abandoned their original profession they where welcomed as infantrymen at the hungarian border fortresses very soon. Because of this at the end of this century this word (including it's original meaning) was used as the name for the hungarian mercenary infantryman.
In the Long War the Haiduks had fought in the service of the emperor but later joined István (Stephan) Bocskai, the Magnate of Partium, who had rebelled against the emperor. Bocskai who couldn't pay the guerdon of the Haiduks elevated all his 9254 warriors to nobles in the same way as the Székely at December 12th 1605 and allowed them to settle at his own properties in the County of Szabolcs. In exchange for the privileges of the nobles he obliged them to serve in the kingdoms army for two month without pay and then with guerdon. Later the Princes of Transylvania created similar Haiduk settlements on their own land.
But with the increase of the cities of the Haiduks the number of their provided soldiers didn't increase at a corresponding rate. In 1644 György (George) I. Rákóczi estimated the number of serviceable Haiduks in the counties of Bihar and Szabolcs at only six to seven thounsand. But mainly this settled Haiduks where horsemen. Alongside the with lances armed cavalry of the Prince the with muskets armed Haiduk Cavalry was a totally different part of the army of Transylvania.
In the warfare of Transylvania the cities of the Haiduks only played a role until 1660. At this time the cities of the county of Szabolcs which where part of the Kingdom of Hugary finally withdrawed from the control of Transylvania. But on the other hand the cities of Bihar where razed systematically by the roaming Turks and never to be restored in their old form. The Turks conquered the center of this area, Várad (Wardstein) and according to the Peace Treaty of Vasvár (Eisenburg) 1664 this area came under turkish rule for three decades.

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 Post subject: Re: Transylvanian army in iconography and descriptions
PostPosted: Mon Sep 22, 2014 1:04 am 
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THE SAXONS

The ancestors of the Transylvanian Saxons settled in their todays residence in the 12th century while the hungarian King Géza (Geisa) II. organized the defense of the transylvanian border. In southern Transylvania at the valley of the river Olt (Alt) the king had settled knights and farmers from the rivers Rhine and Moselle. In the 13th century they where joined by more german settlers. The Saxons which formerly where agricultural, founded several cities. In the 15th century the centers of commerce and guilds of Transylvania where the cities Nagyszeben 8Hermannstadt), Brassó (Kronstadt) and Beszterce (Bistritz).
In the 16th century “according to old habit” the self-governement of the Saxons, namely the Saxon's Universities, had to provide two thousand arquebusiers as well as cannons and trained gunners. In 1614 the parliament decreased this number to 500 Darabonts (Trabants) in black clothing. In the 16th century compared to the great numbers of armed peasant serfs the excellent equipped saxon infantry played a major role in the army of Transylvania. But in the mid 17th century the temporarily committed mercenaries of the Saxons, alongside other infantry units, counted to the reserve, which was left behind for the defense of the country and which was only deployed in case of a prolonged war.

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